Pupillometry is a convenient, feasible technique that is routinely used in the clinical set up as well as in research, to measure pupil size in various physiological and pathological conditions.
- D Du R.
- Meeker M.
- Bacchetti P.
- Larson M.D.
- Holland M.C.
- Manley G.T.
Evaluation of the portable infrared pupillometer.
The pupillary response can be influenced by exposure of the eye to bright light by means of pupillary light reflex, fixing gauge at a near point by accommodation reflex.
Pupillometry: psychology, physiology, and function.
These two reflexes lead to pupil constriction mediated through parasympathetic nerve activation (Occulomotor nerve). The Pupil is dilated in darkness, through sympathetic modulation.
- Mathôt S.
- Van der Stigchel S.
New light on the mind's eye: the pupillary light response as active vision.
- Ajasse S.
- Benosman R.B.
- Lorenceau J.
Effects of pupillary responses to luminance and attention on visual spatial discrimination.
- van der Wel P.
- van Steenbergen H.
Pupil dilation as an index of effort in cognitive control tasks: a review.
So the pupil size for the light stimulus can be a sensitive indicator for evaluation of Autonomic nervous system activity.
- Pittasch D.
- Lobmann R.
- Behrens-Baumann W.
- Lehnert H.
Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.
- Smith S.E.
- Smith S.A.
- Brown P.M.
- Fox C.
- Sönksen P.H.
Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.
- Wang Y.
- Zekveld A.A.
- Naylor G.
- et al.
Parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction, as identified by pupil light reflex, and its possible connection to hearing impairment.
- Muppidi S.
- Adams-Huet B.
- Tajzoy E.
- et al.
Dynamic pupillometry as an autonomic testing tool.
Apart from diagnosis of autonomic derangement, these quantified values of the pupil can help in traumatic brain injuries, pre-operative ophthalmic surgical procedures, and cortical nuclei damages.
Eyeing up the future of the pupillary light reflex in neurodiagnostics.
Various studies have shown that there are different automated pupillometers designed and established for pupil analysis.
- Chaglasian E.L.
- Akbar S.
- Probst L.E.
Pupil measurement using the Colvard pupillometer and a standard pupil card with a cobalt blue filter penlight.
The infrared digital photographic devices and automated pupillometers are precise, accurate and repeatable for computation of static and dynamic measurements of the pupil diameter.
- Boev A.N.
- Fountas K.N.
- Karampelas I.
- et al.
Quantitative pupillometry: normative data in healthy pediatric volunteers.
However, these instruments are highly expensive, unaffordable, especially in poor and developing countries. Even though it is not feasible to use these devices for other setups such as semi-urban and rural OPDs and clinics. Nowadays the digitalization was profoundly developed and high-resolution web cameras become cost-effective and its usage also too easy.
- Mariakakis A.
- Baudin J.
- Whitmire E.
- et al.
PupilScreen: using smartphones to assess traumatic brain injury.
With the advancement of optics such as image stabilization, offline corrections and capturing good quality images has become comfortable and user-friendly. These cameras can also be employed to capture the pupil size and responses to the light stimulus that satisfy the necessities of clinical as well as research purposes. These are accessible and convenient tools that are commercially available in the market. However, they need to be redesigned to some extent as per our requirement to fulfil the above-mentioned purpose. So to obtain information about the pupil in resting state is feasible, effective and user-friendly technique. It is very essential to validate the modified system for accuracy, precision and reliability is essential for the critical judgment of the results.
- Mease L.
- Sikka R.
- Rhees R.
Pupillometer use: validation for use in military and occupational medical surveillance and response to organophosphate and chemical warfare agent exposure.
So the current study was aimed to validate the Personal Computer (PC) based real time pupillometer to record pupillary size under infrared digital videography which compared with the manual qualitative examination.